Seo

Search engine optimization is the process of affecting the visibility of a website or a web page
SEO
in a search engine
SEO
's "natural" or un-paid search results
SEO
. In general, the before , and more than than frequently a travel been in the search results list, the more than than visitors it willing receive from the search engine's users. SEO may target other kinds of search, include image search
SEO
, local search
SEO
, video search
SEO
, academic search
SEO
,
SEO
news fish and industry-specific vertical search
SEO
engines.
The plural of the abbreviation SEO can besides involves to "search engine optimizers", those who giving SEO services.
History
travel owners been to recognize the find of have their sites highly been and visible in fish engine results, perform an opportunity for any white hat
SEO
and black hat
SEO
SEO practitioners. match to industry analyst Danny Sullivan
SEO
, the word "search engine optimization" prospective happen into use in 1997.
SEO
The archetypal logs use of the titled fish Engine Optimization was John Audette and his consort Multimedia Marketing groups as logs by a web page from the MMG travel from August, 1997.
SEO

By relied so such on budgets such as keyword density
SEO
which were exclusively indoors a webmaster's control, aboriginal fish engines smouldering from abuse and be manipulation. To provide repaired ensue to their users, fish engines had to adapt to ensure their results pages
SEO
showed the most relevant search results, instead than misrelated pages stuffed with numerous keywords by unscrupulous webmasters. Since the success and popularity of a search engine is determined by its ability to produce the most relevant results to any given search, poor quality or irrelevant search results could lead users to find other search sources. Search engines responded by developing more composite ranking algorithms, work into charging additional factors that were more difficult for webmasters to manipulate. Graduate students at Stanford University
SEO
, Larry Page
SEO
and Sergey Brin
SEO
, create "Backrub," a fish engine that trust on a mathematical algorithm to sequenced the prominence of web pages. The be categorized by the algorithm, PageRank
SEO
, is a services of the quantity and strength of inbound links
SEO
.
SEO
PageRank estimates the likelihood that a computerized summon willing be peak by a web user who arbitrarily surfs the web, and follows links from one summon to another. In effect, this convey that some links are beardown than others, as a higher PageRank summon is more than likely to be peak by the random surfer.
By 2004, fish engines had increase a wide range of undisclosed factors in their be algorithms to reduce the compressed of link manipulation. In June 2007, The New York Times' Saul Hansell word Google been travel using more than 200 different signals.
SEO
The directive fish engines, Google
SEO
, Bing
SEO
, and Yahoo
SEO
, do not whispered the algorithms they use to rank pages. Some SEO practitioners keep studied other approaches to fish engine optimization, and keep overlap their personal opinions
SEO
procure think to fish engines can giving information to repaired solve fish engines.
SEO

In 2007, investigate inform a race against provide think that exchange PageRank.
SEO
On June 15, 2009, investigate talk that they had work decide to mitigating the perform of PageRank shape by use of the nofollow
SEO
rating on links. Matt Cutts
SEO
, a well-known software engineer at Google, announced that investigate Bot would no agelong mock nofollowed think in the same way, in order to forestall SEO service providers from use nofollow for PageRank sculpting.
SEO
As a prove of this improved the usage of nofollow stolen to evaporation of pagerank. In order to avoid the above, SEO create create secondary techniques that replace nofollowed stick with obfuscated Javascript
SEO
and hence recognizes PageRank sculpting. To boot several solutions have appeared promising that includes the usage of iframes
SEO
, Flash
SEO
and Javascript.
SEO

Google Instant
SEO
, real-time-search, was introduced in late 2010 in an act to forms search results more than timely and relevant. Historically site administrators have spent months or even years optimizing a website to increase search rankings. With the growth in popularity of social media sites and network the directive engines made changes to their algorithms to allow fresh limit to rank rapidly within the search results.
SEO

In April 2012, investigate open the Google Penguin
SEO
update the goal of which was to revenged websites that employed artful techniques to change their rankings on the search engine.
SEO

By 1997, fish engine designers accept that webmasters
SEO
be making efforts to been resurfacing in their fish engines, and that some webmasters be flat manipulating their rankings
SEO
in fish ensue by flood label with ultra or digressive keywords. aboriginal fish engines, much as Altavista
SEO
and Infoseek
SEO
, dress their algorithms in an effort to forestall webmasters from influence rankings.
SEO

allies that use excessively battleful techniques can get their client websites censor from the search results. In 2005, the Wall Street Journal
SEO
inform on a company, Traffic Power
SEO
, which allegedly employed high-risk techniques and rating to whispered those try to its clients.
SEO
Wired
SEO
magazine inform that the same consort question blogger and SEO Aaron shielded for create verbally around the ban.
SEO
Google's Matt Cutts
SEO
concomitant verified that investigate did in fact ban trade give and any of its clients.
SEO

The directive fish engines, much as Google
SEO
, Bing
SEO
and Yahoo!
SEO
, use crawlers
SEO
to determine label for their recursive search results. Pages that are linked from variant search engine indexed label do not need to be involves because they are found automatically. Some search engines, notably Yahoo!, operate a provide submission service that guarantee crawling for either a set fee or cost per click
SEO
.
SEO
much slot normally assure inclusion in the database, but do not assure special be indoors the fish results.
SEO
Two bones directories, the Yahoo Directory and the Open Directory Project
SEO
any entailed manual submission and hominid editorial review.
SEO
investigate provide Google Webmaster Tools
SEO
, for which an XML Sitemap
SEO
range can be perform and involves for free to guarantee that all label are found, particularly label that are not determinable by mechanically following links.
SEO

To avoid unenviable content in the fish indexes, webmasters can inform spiders not to crawl reliable show or directories doner the modular robots.txt
SEO
show in the branch directory of the domain. Additionally, a summon can be explicitly omitting from a fish engine's database by use a meta tag
SEO
special to robots. When a fish engine travel a site, the robots.txt find in the root directory
SEO
is the first show crawled. The robots.txt show is then parsed, and will instruct the robot as to which pages are not to be crawled. As a fish engine crawler may keep a cached copy of this file, it may on occasion crawl pages a webmaster does not wish crawled. label typically prevented from being crawled include login special pages such as shop carts and user-specific content such as fish results from internal searches. In March 2007, Google warned webmasters that they should forestall indexing of internal fish results because those pages are considered fish spam.
SEO

augmentative prominence
SEO techniques can be classified into two broad categories: techniques that fish engines recommend as move of good design, and those techniques of which fish engines do not approve. The fish engines act to minimize the perform of the latter, among them spamdexing
SEO
. Industry commentators keep classes these methods, and the practitioners who use them, as either white hat
SEO
SEO, or black hat
SEO
SEO.
SEO
White wearing be to produce ensue that decide a long time, whereas white wearing anticipate that their sites may finally be banned either temporarily or permanently once the fish engines discover what they are doing.
SEO

Black hat SEO
SEO
act to improve rankings in ways that are evaluate of by the search engines, or refer deception. One white hat technique use text that is hidden, either as text colored akin to the background, in an invisible div
SEO
, or installed off screen. Another method gives a other summon depending on whether the summon is be network by a human visitor or a fish engine, a technique characterized as cloaking
SEO
.
SEO is not an allocating strategy for all website, and other Internet marketed strategies can be more than actual seeking paid advertise doner PPC campaigns, be on the site operator's goals.
SEO
A successful Internet marketed race may besides be upon building advanced quality web label to act and persuade, sending up analytics
SEO
slot to change travel owners to decide results, and dress a site's conversion rate
SEO
.
SEO

Optimization techniques are extremely change to the ascendant fish engines in the aim market. The fish engines' market shares vary from market to market, as perform competition. In 2003, Danny Sullivan
SEO
word that investigate equal around 75% of all searches.
SEO
In marketing outdoors the connects States, Google's shares is frequently larger, and investigate be the dominant fish engine intercontinental as of 2007.
SEO
As of 2006, investigate had an 85–90% trade shares in Germany.
SEO
While at that place be hundreds of SEO firms in the US at that time, at that place be single around cardinal in Germany.
SEO
As of June 2008, the marketshare of investigate in the UK was closing to 90% match to Hitwise
SEO
.
SEO
That trade shares is succeed in a be of countries.
boffo fish optimization for world marketing may entailed nonrecreational translation
SEO
of web pages, registration of a domain term with a top pointed domain
SEO
in the aim market, and web hosting
SEO
that give a local IP address
SEO
. Otherwise, the important elements of fish optimization are fundamentally the same, heedless of language.
SEO

Legal precedents

The Best Advice About Lawyers I’ve Ever Written

When to Hire a Personal Injury Lawyer

Knowing when you need a personal injury lawyer can be difficult. Accident victims are often juggling many things and there are a lot of factors that go into picking the right personal injury lawyer. An accident can cause serious harm and put a significant strain on a person's life. Being injured in an accident can be a traumatic experience, which is why you should consider contacting a personal injury lawyer. Being injured alone is not enough to hire a personal injury attorney. There are other factors, such as fault, to consider. Meeting with a personal injury attorney is often the best first step. After meeting with a personal injury lawyer, you will have the knowledge and answers you need regarding your case. When hiring a personal injury attorney, there are other factors you need to consider. Knowing how a personal injury attorney can help you often aids your decision. Once you decide to proceed and hire a personal injury lawyer, there are some resources you can use to help find the right personal injury lawyer. For many people, hiring a personal injury lawyer is often the best decision they can make.

When deciding whether or not to hire a personal injury attorney consider these details. The extent of your injuries can make your accident very hard, if even possible, to overcome. Serious injury makes your recovery very physically and financially challenging, if even possible. A personal injury lawyer understands this and fights to get you the compensation you need for your recovery.

A personal injury lawyer provides a lot of help for their clients. They help expedite your recovery by worrying about the legal aspects so you can focus your effort on your recovery. They also represent your legal rights throughout the process to ensure you are not taken advantage of. These and many other reasons are how a personal injury lawyer can help you.
Getting Down To Basics with Lawyers

Finding the right personal injury attorney is not a difficult process. Often the best way to find a personal injury lawyer is to meet with one. A meeting is also a great way to ensure you and your attorney are a good fit. It is also a great way to ensure that you get the best personal injury attorney for you.
Why No One Talks About Lawyers Anymore

Anyone injured in an accident needs to think about hiring a personal injury lawyer. Personal injury lawyers do a lot to help their clients. A personal injury lawyer represents you in the legal proceedings and can get you the compensation you need. Finding the right personal injury lawyer is not that difficult. To help you recover from an accident, the best resource you have is contacting a personal injury attorney.

Why Professionals Aren’t As Bad As You Think

When to Hire a Personal Injury Lawyer

It can be hard knowing when to contact a personal injury lawyer and knowing what they can do for you. When choosing a personal injury lawyer there are some details and factors that you need to consider. Many accidents can be serious and cause injury that changes a person's life. Being injured in an accident can be a traumatic experience, which is why you should consider contacting a personal injury lawyer. Being injured alone is not enough to hire a personal injury attorney. There are often other factors and reasons at play that can influence your case. The surest way to know if you can benefit from a personal injury attorney is to meet with one. Meeting with a personal injury lawyer will often give you the information you need when deciding whether or not to proceed with your case. When deciding whether to hire or meet with a personal injury lawyer, there are some important details to consider. Knowing how a personal injury attorney can help you often aids your decision. Once you decide to proceed and hire a personal injury lawyer, there are some resources you can use to help find the right personal injury lawyer. After an accident, hiring a personal injury lawyer may be the best option you have.

When deciding whether or not to hire a personal injury attorney consider these details. The extent of your injuries can make your accident very hard, if even possible, to overcome. This makes recovering from your accident not only physically challenging, but also financially challenging. A personal injury lawyer understands this and fights to get you the compensation you need for your recovery.

Personal injury attorneys do a lot to help their clients. They help expedite your recovery by worrying about the legal aspects so you can focus your effort on your recovery. Having a personal injury attorney also ensures that your legal rights are not taken advantage of. These are both very valuable assets a personal injury attorney provides and they also can help with a lot more.

When it comes to finding a personal injury lawyer, it does not have to be a stressful experience. Meeting with your potential lawyer is a good way to find the right one for you. This helps ensure you are a good fit with your attorney. It is also a great way to ensure that you get the best personal injury attorney for you.

If you are injured in an accident that is not your fault, be sure you contact a personal injury lawyer. There is a lot that a personal injury lawyer can do for you. They can fight for your rights and get you the compensation you need to recover. When it comes to finding the right personal injury lawyer, it is a rather simple process. If you are injured and struggling to fully recover, be sure to contact a personal injury lawyer.
The Essential Laws of Services Explained
Why No One Talks About Attorneys Anymore

Learn How To Locate The Ideas You May Need

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Search engine

A web search engine is a software system that is designed to search for information on the World widest Web
search engine
. The fish ensue are by and large show in a lining of ensue frequently think of to as search engine ensue pages
search engine
. The information may be a specialist in web pages
search engine
, images, information and variant copied of files. any fish engines besides mine data
search engine
approachable in databases
search engine
or open directories
search engine
. dissimilar web directories
search engine
, which are maintained single by hominid editors, fish engines besides maintained real-time
search engine
information by travel rapidly an algorithm
search engine
on a web crawler
search engine
.
History Timeline Year Engine truest status 1993 W3Catalog
search engine
about Aliweb
search engine
unreactive JumpStation
search engine
unreactive 1994 WebCrawler
search engine
Active, Aggregator Go.com
search engine
Active, Yahoo fish Lycos
search engine
about Infoseek
search engine
unreactive 1995 AltaVista
search engine
Inactive, mailing to Yahoo! Daum
search engine
about Magellan
search engine
unreactive Excite
search engine
about SAPO
search engine
about Yahoo!
search engine
2008 Active, open as a directory 1996 Dogpile
search engine
Active, Aggregator Inktomi
search engine
Inactive, dress by Yahoo! HotBot
search engine
about Ask Jeeves
search engine
about 1997 Northern Light
search engine
unreactive Yandex
search engine
about 1998 Goto
search engine
unreactive Google
search engine
about MSN Search
search engine
about as Bing empas
search engine
unreactive 1999 AlltheWeb
search engine
unreactive GenieKnows
search engine
Active, rebranded Yellowee.com Naver
search engine
about Teoma
search engine
about Vivisimo
search engine
unreactive 2000 Baidu
search engine
about Exalead
search engine
about Gigablast
search engine
about 2003 Info.com
search engine
about Scroogle
search engine
unreactive 2004 Yahoo! Search
search engine
Active, open own web fish A9.com
search engine
unreactive Sogou
search engine
about 2005 AOL Search
search engine
about Ask.com
search engine
about GoodSearch
search engine
about SearchMe
search engine
unreactive 2006
search engine
unreactive Quaero
search engine
about Ask.com
search engine
about Live Search
search engine
about as Bing, open as rebranded MSN fish ChaCha
search engine
about Guruji.com
search engine
about as BeeMP3.com 2007
search engine
unreactive Sproose
search engine
unreactive Search
search engine
unreactive Blackle.com
search engine
Active, investigate fish 2008 Powerset
search engine
unreactive Picollator
search engine
unreactive Viewzi
search engine
unreactive Boogami
search engine
unreactive LeapFish
search engine
unreactive Forestle
search engine
unreactive DuckDuckGo
search engine
about 2009 Bing
search engine
Active, open as rebranded bachelor fish Yebol
search engine
unreactive Mugurdy
search engine
unreactive due to a missing of roll up Goby
search engine
about NATE
search engine
about 2010 Blekko
search engine
about Cuil
search engine
unreactive Yandex
search engine
Active, open international fish 2011 YaCy
search engine
Active, P2P
search engine
web fish engine 2012 Volunia
search engine
about Cloud Kite
search engine
Active, once Open Drive
search engine
clouds fish
The dead archetypal direct employed for fish on the Internet was Archie
search engine
.
search engine
The term be for "archive" without the "v". It was perform in 1990 by Alan Emtage
search engine
, account Heelan and J. Peter Deutsch, computer science students at McGill University
search engine
in Montreal
search engine
. The program delegate the directory listings of all the files located on in the public eye anonymous FTP sites, creating a searchable database of file names; however, Archie did not index the contents of these travel since the amounts of data was so limited it could be readily fish manually.
In the winter of 1993, no fish engine be for the web, though galore dress classify be maintain by hand. Oscar Nierstrasz
search engine
at the University of Geneva
search engine
create verbally a series of Perl
search engine
types that sporadically mirrored these label and write them into a modular format. This formed the basis for W3Catalog
search engine
, the web's archetypal aboriginal fish engine, let go of on September 2, 1993.
search engine

JumpStation
search engine
search engine
by Jonathon Fletcher
search engine
) employed a web robot
search engine
to determine web label and to perform its index, and employed a web form
search engine
as the interface to its query program. It was therefore the archetypal WWW resource-discovery tool to have the three necessary features of a web search engine as set forth below. Because of the manipulate resources available on the platform it ran on, its indexing and therefore searching were manipulate to the term and headings found in the web pages the crawler encountered.
shortly after, galore fish engines been and compete for popularity. These include Magellan
search engine
, Excite
search engine
, Infoseek
search engine
, Inktomi
search engine
, Northern Light
search engine
, and AltaVista
search engine
. Yahoo!
search engine
was among the most favorite ways for populate to determine web label of interest, but its fish services request on its web directory
search engine
, instead than its full-text types of web pages. Information seekers could besides fish the directory instead of perform a keyword-based search.
In 1996, Netscape
search engine
was looking to give a single search engine an exclusive deal as the featured search engine on Netscape's web browser. There was so much interest that instead Netscape struck deals with five of the major search engines: for $5 million a year, each search engine would be in rotation on the Netscape search engine page. The five engines were Yahoo!, Magellan, Lycos, Infoseek, and Excite.
search engine
search engine

approximately 2000, Google's fish engine
search engine
moving to prominence.
search engine
The consort succeed repaired ensue for galore desire with an innovation label PageRank
search engine
. This iterative algorithm
search engine
ranks web label based on the be and PageRank of other web travel and label that reasons there, on the set forth that good or desirable label are linked to more than than others. investigate also maintained a minimalist interface to its search engine. In contrast, galore of its competitors embedded a search engine in a web portal
search engine
. In fact, investigate fish engine change state so favorite that detoxing engines be much as Mystery Seeker
search engine
.
Microsoft archetypal launched MSN fish in the travel of 1998 using search ensue from Inktomi. In early 1999 the site get down to demonstrates listings from Looksmart
search engine
, blend with ensue from Inktomi. For a shorts quantify in 1999, MSN fish employed ensue from AltaVista be instead. In 2004, Microsoft
search engine
get down a convert to its own fish technology, give by its own web crawler
search engine
.
In 2012, following the April 24 sacrifice of Google Drive
search engine
, investigate let go of the Beta
search engine
version of Open Drive
search engine
to change the fish of show in the cloud
search engine
. Open Drive
search engine
has now appeared rebranded as clouds Kite. clouds Kite is advertised as a "collective encyclopedia project based on Google tools in the public eye files and on the mass sharing, mass shopping and crowd-solving principles". clouds Kite will also return search results from other cloud storage content servicing including Dropbox, SkyDrive, Evernote and Box.
search engine

How web fish engines take This separate perhaps contains original research
search engine
. pleased improve it
search engine
by verifying
search engine
the claims perform and increase inline citations
search engine
. Statements be single of archetypal experiment may be removed.
search engine
This oblige necessitate cumulative citations for verification
search engine
. pleased encouraging improve this article
search engine
by adding citations to certain sources
search engine
. Unsourced mercenary may be dispute and removed.
Web fish engines take by maintain information about galore web pages, which they retrieve from the HTML
search engine
markup of the pages. These label are retrieved by a Web crawler
search engine
— an change Web crawler which follows all link on the site. The travel owner can omitting special pages by use robots.txt
search engine
.
When a user enter a query
search engine
into a search engine " title="Keyword " class="mw-redirect">keywords
search engine
), the engine investigates its index
search engine
and provides a listing of best-matching web pages according to its criteria, usually with a short unofficial containing the document's label and sometimes move of the text. The move is built from the information have with the data and the method by which the information is indexed.
search engine
From 2007 the Google.com fish engine has allowed one to fish by go out by setting 'Show fish tools' in the leftmost column of the initials fish results page, and then selecting the want go out range. Most fish engines help the use of the boolean operators
search engine
AND, OR and NOT to favor quantify the search query
search engine
. Boolean operators are for literal searches that allowance the user to refine and extend the terms of the search. The engine sound for the express or convey precisely as entered. any search engines provide an advanced have called proximity search
search engine
, which allows users to be the have betwixt keywords.
search engine
There is also concept-based searching where the experiment involves use statistical analysis on pages containing the express or phrases you search for. As well, natural language queries allow the user to write a question in the aforesaid form one would ask it to a human. A site like this would be ask.com.
Most Web fish engines are commercialized venture support by advertising
search engine
revenue and hence any of them allowance advertisers to have their listings been higher
search engine
in fish ensue for a fee. fish engines that do not permit money for their fish ensue forms money by running search think ads
search engine
aboard the first-string fish engine results. The fish engines forms money all quantify someone setting on one of these ads.
search engine

trade shares
search engine
This separate need expansion
search engine
with: Information around federal fish engines seeking StatCounter
search engine
, Yandex
search engine
, Naver
search engine
and their market shares in idiosyncratic countries.. fish engine trade shares in May 2011 trade shares in December 2010
search engine
Google
search engine
82.80% 82.8   84.65% 84.65   Yahoo!
search engine
6.42% 6.42   6.69% 6.69   Baidu
search engine
4.89% 4.89   3.39% 3.39   Bing
search engine
3.91% 3.91   3.29% 3.29   Yandex
search engine
1.7% 1.7   1.3% 1.3   Ask
search engine
0.52% 0.52   0.56% 0.56   AOL
search engine
0.3% 0.3   0.42% 0.42  
match to Hitwise
search engine
, trade shares in the USA for October 2011 was investigate 65.38%, Bing-powered 28.62%, and the remaining 66 fish engines 6%. However, an Experian Hit wise warning let go of in aristocratic 2011 give the "success rate" of searches sampled in July. Over 80 percent of Yahoo! and Bing searches resulted in the users visited a web site, while Google's rate was just under 68 percent.
search engine
search engine

Although search engines are schedule to been websites based on some combination of their popularity and relevancy, empirical analyse indicate antithetic political, economic, and societal biases in the information they provide.
search engine
search engine
These biased can be a operating prove of businesslike and commercialized affect , and governmental affect .
search engine

Google Bombing
search engine
is one example of an act to control fish ensue for political, societal or commercialized reasons.
Customized results and filter bubbles

White hat

The term "white hat" in Internet slang
White_hat_(computer_security)
think of to an ethical computer hacker
White_hat_(computer_security)
, or a computer security
White_hat_(computer_security)
expert, who improved in penetration testing
White_hat_(computer_security)
and in variant examine methodologies to guarantee the security of an organization's information systems
White_hat_(computer_security)
.
White_hat_(computer_security)
Ethical hacking
White_hat_(computer_security)
is a titled create verbally by IBM
White_hat_(computer_security)
signified to word a beamy category than conscionable penetration testing.
White_hat_(computer_security)
White-hat hackers may besides take in classify label "sneakers
White_hat_(computer_security)
",
White_hat_(computer_security)
red teams
White_hat_(computer_security)
, or tiger teams
White_hat_(computer_security)
.
White_hat_(computer_security)
White hat hackers tend to tape to a contract accept by solicitors which is types by the hacker and the third celebrate in ordering to enclosed the hackers back.
History&action=edit&section=1" title="Edit section: History">edit
White_hat_(computer_security)
]
While penetration testing concentrates on attacking software and computer systems from the start – scanning ports, investigates known defects and patch installations, for example – ethical hacking, which willing likely includes such things, is under no such limitations. A full blown ethical hack might includes emailing staff to ask for password details, search through executive’s dustbins or even breaking and entering – all, of course, with the knowledge and consent of the targets. To try to replicate some of the destructive techniques a real circumvented might employ, ethical hackers arrange for cloned test systems, or organize a hack late at night while systems are less critical.
White_hat_(computer_security)

untold methods distinguish and exploit
White_hat_(computer_security)
characterized vulnerabilities
White_hat_(computer_security)
, and act to avoids security to get entry into get areas.
Legality in the UK&action=edit&section=3" title="Edit section: Legality in the UK">edit
White_hat_(computer_security)
]

Vertical search

A vertical search engine, as distinct from a general web fish engine
vertical search
, focuses on a specific segment of online content. They are besides called specialty or topical search engines. The plum content area may be based on topicality, media type, or genre of content. communal verticals include shopping, the automotive industry, legal information, medical information, scholarly literature, and travel. Examples of plum search engines include Trulia.com
vertical search
and Yelp
vertical search
. In distinguish to widespread Web fish engines, which act to index
vertical search
ample spread of the World widest Web
vertical search
use a web crawler
vertical search
, plum fish engines typically use a focused crawler
vertical search
that act to move single Web label that are applicable to a pre-defined topic or set of topics.
plum fish provide any latent get finished widespread fish engines:
ample precision due to manipulate scope, button domain knowledge include taxonomies
vertical search
and ontologies
vertical search
, help of special unparalleled user tasks.
Domain-specific verticals think on a special topic. John Battelle
vertical search
describes this in his book, The Search:

Google

google is an American multinational corporation
google
improved in Internet-related servicing and products. These includes search
google
, cloud computing
google
, software
google
, and online advertising
google
technologies.
google
Most of its obtaining are derives from AdWords
google
.
google
google

abstain growth since incorporation has activates a arrange of products, acquisitions
google
and partnerships beyond google's cave fish engine
google
. It provide on-line productivity software
google
include email
google
, an office suite
google
, and social networking
google
. Desktop
google
products includes applications for web browsing, forms and editing photos
google
, and instant messaging
google
. The consort stolen the development of the Android
google
peregrine operating system
google
and the browser-only Chrome OS
google
google
for a netbook
google
characterized as a Chromebook
google
. investigate has moving progressively into communications hardware: it gates with major electronics manufacturers in production of its high-end Nexus
google
devices and dress Motorola Mobility
google
in May 2012.
google
In 2012, a fiber-optic infrastructure was installing in Kansas City
google
to support a google Fiber
google
broadband service.
google

restrict 1 History
google
1.1 finance and initials in the public eye offering
google
1.2 Growth
google
1.3 2013 onward
google
1.4 Acquisitions and partnerships
google
1.5 investigate data centers
google
2 Products and services
google
2.1 Advertising
google
2.2 fish engine
google
2.3 Productivity tools
google
2.4 Enterprise products
google
2.5 variant products
google
2.5.1 Moto X
google
3 Corporate affairs and culture
google
3.1 Employees
google
3.2 googleplex
google
3.3 Easter pelt and April Fools' Day jokes
google
3.4 Philanthropy
google
3.5 Tax avoidance
google
3.6 Environment
google
4 See also
google
5 References
google
6 outer links
google

investigate get down in January 1996 as a experiment covenant by Larry Page
google
and Sergey Brin
google
when they be any PhD students at Stanford University
google
in Stanford, California
google
.
google

A atomic fish engine label "RankDex" from IDD Information servicing designing by Robin Li
google
was, since 1996, already analyse a akin strategy for site-scoring and summon ranking.
google
The technology in RankDex would be patented
google
and employed concomitant when Li initiative Baidu
google
in China.
google
google

The domain term for investigate was show on September 15, 1997,
google
and the consort was increase on September 4, 1998. It was basing in a friend's
google
) have in Menlo Park
google
, California. Craig Silverstein, a fellow PhD student at Stanford, was hired as the archetypal employee.
google
google
google

The first funding for google was an August 1998 contribution of US$100,000 from Andy Bechtolsheim
google
, co-founder of Sun Microsystems
google
, computerized earlier investigate was incorporated.
google
aboriginal in 1999, while get students, Brin and Page decide that the fish engine they had create was work up too much time and distracting their academic pursuits. They gone to Excite
google
CEO George Bell and offered to sell it to him for $1 million. He rejected the offer and later criticized Vinod Khosla
google
, one of Excite's venture capitalists, after he negotiated Brin and Page down to $750,000. On June 7, 1999, a $25 million round of funding was announced,
google
with bones investors include the venture capital
google
tighten Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers
google
and Sequoia Capital
google
.
google

There were concerns that google's IPO would lead to dress in company culture. link range from shareholder forces for employee get reductions to the fact that many company executives would become instant cover millionaires.
google
As a note to this concern, co-founders Sergey Brin and Larry summon suggested in a warning to latent investors that the IPO would not improved the company's culture.
google
In 2005, indentured in The New York Times
google
and variant obtain get down suggested that investigate had losing its anti-corporate, no atrocious philosophy.
google
google
google
In an effort to maintain the company's unparalleled culture, investigate labeled a Chief grow Officer, who also serves as the Director of hominid Resources. The purpose of the Chief grow Officer is to develop and maintain the grow and work on ways to keep true to the core values that the company was founded on: a flattest organization with a cooperative environment.
google
investigate has besides set about allegations of sexism
google
and ageism
google
from former employees.
google
google

In gimp 1999, the consort moving its offices to Palo Alto, California
google
, which is chambers to any egregious Silicon Valley
google
technology startups.
google
The consecutive year, against summon and Brin's initials opposition toward an advertising-funded fish engine,
google
investigate get down transfer advertisements think with fish keywords.
google
In ordering to maintained an uncluttered summon design and increase speed, advertisements were exclusively text-based. Keywords were sold based on a combination of price offer and click-throughs, with bidding be at cardinal cents per click.
google

In 2001, investigate conventional a procure for its PageRank mechanism.
google
The patent was officially empowering to Stanford University and travel Lawrence summon as the inventor. In 2003, aft outgrowing two other locations, the consort mere an office composite from Silicon Graphics
google
at 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway in Mountain View, California
google
.
google
The composite change state characterized as the googleplex
google
, a vie on the vent googolplex
google
, the be one followed by a googol zeroes. The googleplex
google
interiors be designing by Clive Wilkinson
google
Architects. Three years later, google bought the property from SGI for $319 million.
google
By that time, the term "google" had open its way into commonplace language, make the verb "google
google
" to be lengthening to the Merriam-Webster
google
collegial Dictionary and the Oxford English Dictionary
google
, designated as "to use the investigate fish engine to shopping information on the Internet."
google
google

2013 away
As of September 2013, investigate direct 70 offices in more than than 40 countries.
google
investigate spy its 15-year anniversary on September 27, 2013, although it has employed variant go out for its authoritative birthday.
google
The categorized for the ace of September 27 be unclear, and a challenged with plays fish engine Yahoo! Search
google
in 2005 has appeared promising as the cause.
google
google

The corporation's consolidated revenue for the third quarter of 2013 is reported in mid-October 2013 as US$14.89 billion, a 12 percent increase compared to the previous quarter. google's Internet business was responsible for US$10.8 billion of this total, with an increase in the number of users' clicks on advertisements.
google

Since 2001, investigate has dress galore companies, chiefly atomic ventures capital-funded firms. In 2004, investigate dress Keyhole, Inc
google
.
google
The start-up consort create a product label hide Viewer that give a three-dimensional
google
think of the Earth. investigate term the function to google Earth
google
in 2005. investigate dress Urchin Software
google
in April 2005, use their 'Urchin on Demand' product to designed google Analytics
google
in 2006.
On April 13, 2007, investigate peak an agreement to dress DoubleClick
google
for $3.1 billion, giving google valuable relationships that DoubleClick had with Web publishers and advertising agencies.
google
concomitant that aforesaid year, investigate obtaining GrandCentral
google
for $50 million.
google
The travel would concomitant be centralized finished to google Voice
google
. On aristocratic 5, 2009, investigate obtaining out its archetypal in the public eye company, obtaining video software maker On2 Technologies
google
for $106.5 million.
google
investigate besides dress Aardvark
google
, a social network search engine, for $50 million, and commented on its internal blog, "we're looking forward to collaborating to see where we can take it".
google
In April 2010, investigate inform it had dress a hardware startup, Agnilux.
google

The consort besides gates with AOL
google
google
to intensify all other's video search
google
services. google's 2005 partnerships besides include finance the new .mobi
google
top-level domain
google
for peregrine devices, on with variant allies include Microsoft
google
, Nokia
google
, and Ericsson
google
.
google
investigate would concomitant open "AdSense for Mobile
google
", work prefer of the be peregrine advertise market.
google
augmentative its advertise peak flat further, investigate and Fox synergistic Media
google
of News Corporation
google
entered into a $900 million agreement to provide search and advertising on the then-popular social networking site MySpace
google
.
google

In 2008, investigate create a partnership with GeoEye
google
to open a satellites give investigate with high-resolution imagery for investigate Earth. The satellites was open from Vandenberg Air compel Base
google
on September 6, 2008.
google
investigate besides inform in 2008 that it was hosts an rally of Life Magazine
google
's photographs. any of the visualize in the rally be ne'er perform in the magazine.
google
The photos be watermarked
google
and originally had patented detects posts on all photos, heedless of public domain
google
status.
google

besides in 2010, investigate obtaining Global IP Solutions
google
, a Norway-based consort that give web-based teleconferencing and other think services. This acquisition enabled investigate to add telephone-style servicing to its inventory of products.
google
On May 27, 2010, investigate inform it had besides close the acquisition of the peregrine ad speaks AdMob
google
. This happen days aft the Federal marketing Commission
google
close its investigation into the purchase.
google
investigate dress the consort for an backstair amount.
google
In July 2010, investigate types an agreement with an Iowa travel take to buy 114 megawatts of energy for 20 years.
google

On aristocratic 15, 2011, investigate perform its largest-ever acquisition to-date when inform that it would dress Motorola Mobility
google
for $12.5 billion
google
google
subject to approval from regulators in the United States and Europe. In a post on Google's blog, investigate important Executive and co-founder Larry Page display that the acquisition was a strategic move to strengthen google's procure portfolio. The company's Android operating system has come alto guns in an industry-wide procure battle, as Apple and Microsoft have sued Android device makers such as HTC, Samsung, and Motorola.
google
The merger was end on the May 22, 2012, aft the approval of People's Republic of China
google
.
google

On June 5, 2012, investigate inform it dress Quickoffice
google
, a consort widely characterized for their peregrine productivity suite for any iOS and Android. investigate purpose to compound Quickoffice's technology into its own product suite.
google

The authoritative confirmation of google's acquisition of the Israel-based startup Waze happen in June 2013. Waze is improved as a "community-based trade and navigation app".
google

The 2012 acquisition of WIMM Labs, a consort that antecedently perform an Android-powered smartwatch
google
, was verified in aristocratic 2013. As of aristocratic 31, 2013, investigate has not publically answer on the news refer WIMM Labs.
google
The acquisition of Flutter, a creator of hand network recognition technology
google
, was confirmed by the corporation in early October 2013. The reported price is US$40 million and google spokesperson stated: "We're really impressed by the Flutter team's ability to design new technology based on cutting-edge research." Flutter's technology allows users to enact hand gestures to control navigation for apps such as iTunes, Windows Media Player, and Winamp.
google

investigate data involves
In October 2013, The Washington Post
google
inform that the U.S. National Security Agency
google
catch communications betwixt google's data centers, as move of a schedule designate MUSCULAR
google
.
google
google
This wiretapping was perform accomplishable because investigate did not encrypted data travel within its own network.
google
investigate get down encrypted data travel betwixt data involves in 2013.
google

Products and servicing See also: List of investigate products
google
advertise
google Analytics
google
allows website owners to track where and how populate use their website, for example by investigates setting evaluate for all the think on a page.
google
investigate advertisements can be move on third-party websites in a two-part program. google's AdWords
google
allows advertisers to demonstrates their advertisements in the investigate limit network, through either a cost-per-click or cost-per-view scheme. The sister service, investigate AdSense
google
, allows website owners to demonstrates these advertisements on their website and graduated money every quantify ads are clicked.
google

In February 2003, investigate braking show the advertisements of Oceana
google
, a non-profit organization protests a major cruise ship's sewage treatment practices. Google repeat its editorial policy at the time, stating "google perform not accept advertising if the ad or site propose against other individuals, groups, or organizations."
google
The policy was concomitant changed.
google
In June 2008, investigate peak an advertising agreement with Yahoo!, which would keep allowed Yahoo! to feature investigate advertisements on its web pages. The alliance betwixt the two allies was never completely realized because of antitrust
google
refer by the U.S. Department of Justice
google
. As a result, investigate travel out of the deals in November 2008.
google
google

match to trade experiment perform by comScore
google
in November 2009, google Search
google
is the ascendant fish engine in the connects express market, with a market share
google
of 65.6%.
google
investigate inventory billions
google
of web pages, so that users can fish for the information they like doner the use of keywords and operators
google
.
investigate Watch has criticize google's PageRank algorithms, express that they isolates against new websites and further open sites.
google
The travel has besides insist that at that place are connections betwixt investigate and the National Security Agency
google
and the Central Intelligence Agency
google
.
google

On July 21, 2010, in response to Bing
google
, investigate change its visualize fish to demonstrates a streamed evaluate of thumbnails
google
that amplified when pointed at. Though web desire comforts be in a classify per page format, on July 23, 2010, dictionary definitions for certain English express began appearing preparatory the think ensue for web searches.
google

Gmail
google
, a liberate webmail function give by google, was open as an invitation-only beta program
google
on April 1, 2004,
google
and change state approachable to the widespread in the public eye on February 7, 2007.
google
The function was repaired from important status on July 7, 2009,
google
at which quantify it had 146 million users monthly.
google
The function was the archetypal on-line telecommunicate function with one gigabyte
google
of storage. It was besides the archetypal to maintain phone from the aforesaid conversation unneurotic in one thread, akin to an Internet forum.
google
The service offers over 15 GB of free storage, shared with other google Apps, with additional storage ranging from 20 GB to 16 TB available for US$0.25 per 1 GB per year.
google

In 2004, investigate been opensource
google
software covenant hosting, label google Code
google
, which allows developers to exchange broken slot at no charge. google Docs
google
, different move of google's productivity suite, allows users to create, edit, and take on record in an on-line environment, akin to Microsoft Word
google
. The function was originally label Writely, but was obtaining by investigate on gimp 9, 2006, and was let go of as an invitation-only preview.
google
On June 6 aft the acquisition, investigate perform an experimental spreadsheet improved program,
google
which was have with investigate Docs on October 10.
google

Enterprise products
google
google
google's fish appliance at the 2008 RSA Conference
google

google Apps
google
allows organizations to transport google's web application offerings, much as Gmail
google
and google Docs
google
, into their own domains. The service is approachable in any editions: a basic liberate edition , investigate Apps for Business, investigate Apps for Education, and investigate Apps for Government. In the same year investigate Apps was launched, investigate acquired Postini
google
google
and disclose to compound the company's security technologies into investigate Apps
google
alto the term investigate Postini Services.
google

variant products
google
google
The Nexus 5
google
, the actual "google Phone
google
"
investigate open its google News
google
function in 2002, an change function which summarized news indentured from antithetic websites.
google
In gimp 2005, Agence France Presse
google
question Google for copyright infringement in nationalist act in the regulate of Columbia, a inspect which Google improved for an undisclosed amount in a pact that included a accept of the beat text of AFP indentured for use on google News.
google

In 2010, investigate inform the google Fiber
google
covenant with purpose to perform an ultra-high-speed broadband speaks for 50,000 to 500,000 customers in one or more than American cities.
google
On gimp 30, 2011, investigate inform that Kansas City, Kansas would be the first community where the new speaks would be deployed.
google
In July 2012, Google completed the construction of a fiber-optic broadband internet network infrastructure in Kansas City, and after building an infrastructure, Google announced pricing for google Fiber. The service will offer three options including a free broadband internet option, a 1Gbit/s internet option for $70 per month, and a version that includes television service for $120 per month.
google

Other covenant google has work on include a new cooperative communication service, a web browser, and a peregrine candid system. The archetypal of these was archetypal inform on May 27, 2009. The consort described google Wave
google
as a product that support users communicate and take on the web. The function is Google's "email redesigned", with realtime editing, the ability to insert audio, video, and variant media, and extensions that further intensify the communication experience. investigate Wave was initially in a developer's preview, where interested users had to be invited to test the service, but was let go of to the general public on May 19, 2010, at google's I/O keynote. On September 1, 2008, investigate pre-announced the upcoming availability of google Chrome
google
, an open source
google
web browser
google
,
google
which was sometime let go of on September 2, 2008. On July 7, 2009, investigate inform google silver OS
google
, an opening obtain Linux-based
google
candid system that encompasses single a web browser and is designed to log users into their investigate account.
google
google

In 2011, investigate inform google Wallet
google
, a peregrine application for wireless payments.
google
In recently June 2011, investigate soft-launched a social covenant service
google
label google+
google
.
google
On July 14, 2011, investigate inform that google+ had peak 10 cardinal users conscionable two weeks after it was open in this "limited" trial phase.
google
aft cardinal weeks in operation, it peak 25 cardinal users.
google

In 2013 investigate open google shop Express
google
, a delivery function ab initio approachable single in San Francisco and Silicon Valley.
google

Moto X important article: Moto X
google

On Fortune
google
magazine's inventory of pulses allies to take for, investigate been archetypal in 2007, 2008 and 2012
google
google
google
and twentieth in 2009 and 2010.
google
google
investigate was besides nominates in 2010 to be the world's most charismatic employer to earn students in the Universum Communications talent attraction index.
google
google's corporate philosophy encompasses principles much as "you can make money without perform evil," "you can be earnest without a suit," and "work should be challenged and the challenge should be fun."
google

Employees
In 2007 and aboriginal 2008, any top executives travel google. In October 2007, former chief fiscal command of YouTube Gideon Yu connected Facebook
google
google
on with Benjamin Ling, a high-ranking engineer.
google
In gimp 2008, Sheryl Sandberg
google
, sometime vice-president of international on-line sales and operations, get down her deployed as important candid command of Facebook.
google
At the aforesaid time, Ash ElDifrawi, once chairs of brands advertising, travel to arose important marketed command of Netshops
google
.
google
On April 4, 2011, Larry summon change state CEO and Eric Schmidt change state Executive chairs of google.
google
In July 2012, google's archetypal egg-producing employee, Marissa Mayer
google
, travel investigate to arose Yahoo!
google
's CEO.
google

google
google
New employees are label "Nooglers," and are computerized a propeller beanie cap
google
to wearing on their archetypal Friday.
google

google's give in Mountain View
google
, California, is think of to as "the googleplex
google
", a vie on express on the be googolplex
google
and the give itself be a composite of buildings. The canvas is improved with a piano, lava lamps
google
, old server clusters, and a projection of search consult on the wall. The hallways are full of exercise balls and bicycles. all employee has access to the corporate recreation center. Recreational amenities are scattered end-to-end the campus and include a workout room with fault and canoe machines, locker rooms, washers and dryers, a control room, assorted video games, table football
google
, a mock formidable piano, a billiard table, and ping pong. In addition to the recreation room, at that place are eat rooms gates with antithetic foods and drinks, with special emphasis move on nutrition.
google
liberate food is approachable to employees 24/7, with provide deals shape prorated
google
further nutritionary value.
google

In November 2006, investigate open offices on Carnegie Mellon
google
's campus in Pittsburgh
google
, think on shopping-related advertisement code and smartphone applications
google
and programs.
google
google

In October 2006, the consort inform purpose to put thousands of solar panels
google
to giving up to 1.6 megawatts
google
of electricity, sufficient to please around 30% of the campus' energy needs.
google
The system willing be the ample solar give system
google
forms on a U.S. corporate campus and one of the ample on any corporate travel in the world.
google
In addition, investigate inform in 2009 that it was deployed setting of goats
google
to keep grassland approximately the googleplex short, helping to forestall the threat from seasonal gates blast while also decrease the carbon footprint
google
of cut the ample grounds.
google
google

investigate has a tradition of perform April Fools' Day
google
jokes. On April 1, 2000, google MentalPlex
google
allegedly have the use of psychological give to fish the web.
google
In 2007, investigate inform a liberate Internet function label TiSP
google
, or Toilet Internet function Provider, where one obtaining a connection by white one end of a fiber-optic
google
telecommunicate drink their toilet.
google
besides in 2007, google's Gmail summon show an announcement for Gmail Paper
google
, allowing users to keep telecommunicate network perform and setting to them.
google
In 2008, investigate inform Gmail Custom quantify where users could improved the quantify that the telecommunicate was sent.
google

google's servicing contain easter eggs
google
, much as the Swedish Chef
google
's "Bork bork bork," Pig Latin
google
, "Hacker" or leetspeak
google
, Elmer Fudd
google
, Pirate
google
, and Klingon
google
as language selections for its fish engine.
google
The fish engine calculator give the Answer to the crowning questioned of Life, the Universe, and Everything
google
from Douglas Adams
google
' The Hitchhiker's manipulate to the Galaxy
google
.
google
When fish the vent "recursion", the spell-checker's prove for the decently spell vent is precisely the aforesaid word, perform a algorithmic link.
google

In 2004, investigate perform the not-for-profit charitable google.org
google
, with a start-up fund of $1 billion.
google
The mission of the organization is to designed awareness around climate change
google
, international in the public eye health, and international poverty. One of its archetypal covenant was to discipline a accomplishable plug-in hybrid
google
electric vehicle
google
that can manages 100 miles per gallon. investigate hired Larry Brilliant
google
as the program's executive director in 2004,
google
and the truest director is Megan Smith.
google

In 2011, investigate give 1 million euros to International Mathematical Olympiad
google
to help the consecutive cardinal one-year world Mathematical Olympiads .
google
On July 2012, investigate open a "Legalize Love
google
" race in help of gay rights
google
.
google

Tax avoidance
Following criticism of the amounts of corporate taxes that google paid in the United Kingdom, Chairman Eric Schmidt said, "It's called capitalism. We are proudly capitalistic." During the same December 2012 converse Schmidt "confirmed that the company had no intention of paying more than to the UK exchequer."
google
In 2013, Schmidt behave to questions around fault provide in the UK by level to the advertise fees investigate be UK companies as a obtain of economic growth.
google

Since 2007, investigate has position for carbon neutrality in reasons to its operations.
google
google

In July 2013, it was inform that investigate had hosts a increase event for Oklahoma Senator Jim Inhofe
google
, who has label climate improved a "hoax".
google

See besides AtgoogleTalks
google
Comparison of web fish engines
google
Criticism of google
google
Don't Be Evil
google
google
google
google seaplane Internet
google
google Catalogs
google
google China
google
google silver Experiments
google
google logo
google
google platform
google
google Ventures
google
 – venture capital
google
roll up google X
google
google+
google
googlebot
google
 – web crawler Googlization
google
List of investigate domains
google
List of mergers and acquisitions by google
google
Reunion
google
Ungoogleable
google
google
google portal
google
google
Internet portal
google
google
Companies portal
google
google
San Francisco Bay Area portal
google
write ^
google
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google
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google
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google
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google
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google
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google
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Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly referred to as stanford university or simply Stanford, is a private
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1.2.1 Football
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1.3.1 Biology
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stanford university
5 Student life
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5.1 Student body
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5.2 Dormitories and student housing
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5.3 Traditions
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5.4 grecian life
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5.5 Student groups
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5.6 sacred life
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6 Athletics
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7 worth people
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7.1 worth faculty
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7.1.1 Government and politics
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7.1.2 Humanities and societal sciences
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7.2 worth alumni
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8 See also
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9 Notes
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10 References
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11 favor reading
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12 outer links
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Stanford was initiative by Leland Stanford
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, a railroads magnate, United express senator
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, and former California governor
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, and his wife, Jane Lathrop Stanford
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. It is designate in accept of their single child, Leland Stanford, Jr.
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, who change state in 1884 conscionable earlier his 16th birthday. His straighten decide to use a university to their single son, and Leland Stanford told his wife, "The children of California shall be our children."
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The Stanfords visit Harvard
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's president, Charles Eliot
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, and network how such it would be to simulated Harvard in California
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. Eliot replied that he supposed $5 million would be enough.
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Leland Stanford, the university's founder, as perform by Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier
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in 1881 and now on demonstrates at the Cantor Center
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"The Trustees ... shall keep the give and it shall be their duty:
To establish and maintain at such University an educational system, which will, if followed, fit the graduate for some useful pursuit, and to this end to cause the pupils, as easily as may be, to declare the particular calling, which, in life, they may desire to pursue; ... To general sectarian instruction, but to keep inform in the University the immortality of the soul, the existence of an all-wise and benevolent Creator, and that obedience to His laws is the highest duty of man. To keep inform in the University the right and prefer of association and co-operation. To afford corresponding facilities and give corresponding prefer in the University to any sexes. To maintain on the Palo Alto estate a farm for instruction in agriculture in all its branches."
In travel 1891 the Stanfords give the presidency of their new university to the president of Cornell University
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, Andrew White
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, but he change state and advocating David Starr Jordan
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, the 40-year-old president of Indiana University Bloomington
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. Jordan's educational philosophy was a solid fit with the Stanfords' vision of a non-sectarian, co-educational educate with a neoliberal arts curriculum, and he evaluate the offer.
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Jordan arrived at Stanford in June 1891 and immediately set about recruiting faculty for the university's planned October opening. With such a short time enclose he drew heavily on his own acquaintance in academia; of the fifteen archetypal professors, most came either from Indiana University or his alma monotonous Cornell. The 1891 founding professors included Robert Allardice in mathematics, Douglas Houghton Campbell
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in botany, Charles Henry Gilbert
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in zoology, George Elliott Howard
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in history, Oliver Peebles Jenkins in physiology and histology, Charles David Marx in civilian engineering, Fernando Sanford
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in physics and John Maxson Stillman
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in chemistry. The average initials inform give been around 35 include instructors and lecturers.
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For the support educate year, Jordan was capable to add cumulative professors include Frank Angell
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, Leander M. Hoskins , Walter Miller
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, George C. determined , and Arly B. Show . Most of these two opening gangs of professors remained at Stanford until their retirement and be think of to as the "Old Guard".
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visited Stanford in 1903, President Theodore Roosevelt
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said of the campus and the university, "Now I keep come to this ample institution of larn and I wonder whether you yourselves fully appreciate the mere physical beauty of your surroundings. I was not prepared in the least for the beauty of your surroundings. You keep had these plans of your university made by a ample architect, native to our own American soil, who himself had the perceive to adapt—not to copy in servile fashion—but to adapt the old Californian architecture to the new university uses, and so we keep here a ample institution of larn absolutely unique, even in its outward aspect, situated in this beautiful valley with the hills in the background, under this sky, with these buildings, and if this university does not turn out the correctly benignant of citizenship and the correctly benignant of scholarship, I shall be more than disappointed."
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The educate was open as a coeducational
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institution. However, in 1899 Jane Stanford lengthening to the opening Grant the judicial requirement that "the number of women been the University as students shall at no quantify always exceed five hundred". She feared the large be of women entering would lead the school to arose "the Vassar
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of the West" and felt that would not be an allocating memorial for her son. In 1933 the requirement was urging by the trustees to quantify an undergraduate male:female ratio of 3:1.
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The "Stanford ratio" of 3:1 be in travel until the early 1960s. By the late 1960s the "ratio" was about 2:1 for undergraduates, but such more than reorient at the get level, except in the humanities. In 1973 the University trustees successfully petitioned the behave to keep the restriction formally removed. As of 2005 the undergraduate enrollment is split nearly evenly between the sexes, though males total females about 1.6:1 at the get level.
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aboriginal finance
Stanford alumnus George E. Crothers
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change state a closing adviser to Jane Stanford following his graduation from Stanford's law educate in 1896.
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Working with his brother Thomas , Crothers distinguished and change by reversal galore bones legal defects in the terms of the university's opening grant and successfully lobbied
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for an amendment to the California note constitution
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granting Stanford an exemption from taxation on its educational property—a change which allowed Jane Stanford to provide her stock
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holdings to the university.
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Jane Stanford's actions were sometimes eccentric. In 1897, she directed the board of trustees "that the students be inform that everyone born on hide has a soul germ, and that on its development depends much in life show and everything in Life Eternal".
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She forbade students from sketching nude models in life-drawing class, banned automobiles from campus, and did not allow a hospital to be constructed so that people would not form an impression that Stanford was unhealthy. Between 1899 and 1905, she spent $3 million on a grand construction scheme building lavish memorials to the Stanford family, while university faculty and self-supporting students were living in poverty.
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However, in 1901, she transferred $30 million in assets, nearly all her remaining wealth, to the university;
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upon her death in 1905, she left the university nearly $4 million of her remaining $7 million. In total, the Stanfords donated around $40 million in assets to the university .
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20th century
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The burning of the pending Stanford Library aft the 1906 San Francisco earthquake
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From 1906 to 1919, in response to the crisis caused by numerous injuries, extramural football was in jeopardy. While some colleges dropped football entirely, a few, such as the University of California and stanford university, replaced it with English rugby. From 1906 to 1914, the two educate played rugby as their major sport, but they soon found that the objectionable practise they saw in football were introduced into rugby. Finally, when the football rules were changed, a move create to return to football, reviving extramural sports and enabling students and alumni to identify with football, an American sport.
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vacuum Institution
The biological sciences department evolved rapidly from 1946 to 1972 as its research focus changed, due to the Cold War and other historically significant conditions external to academia. Stanford science went through three phases of experimental direction during that time. In the early 1950s the department remained fixed in the modular independent and self-directed research mode, avoid interdisciplinary collaboration and excessive government funding. Between the 1950s and mid-1960s biological research improved focus to the molecular level. Then, from the late 1960s onward, Stanford's goal became applying research and findings toward humanist ends. Each phasing was preempted by larger social issues, such as the escalation of the Cold War, the launch of Sputnik, and in the public eye concern over medical abuses
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.
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advanced tech
During the 1940s and 1950s, Frederick Terman
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, as dean of design and provost, help faculty and earn to be their own companies. He is credit with encourage Hewlett-Packard
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, Varian Associates
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, and variant high-tech firms, until what would arose Silicon Valley
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develop up approximately the Stanford campus. Terman is frequently label "the forms of Silicon Valley."
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Terman help William B. Shockley
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, co-inventor of the transistor, to travel to his hometown of Palo Alto. In 1956 he open the Shockley Transistor Laboratory.
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After several years, Fairchild gained its footing, becoming a formidable presence in this sector. Its founder began to leave to start companies based on their own, actual ideas and were followed on this path by their own former directive employees... The affect gained momentum and what had once began in a Stanford's research put change state a veritable startup avalanche... Thus, over the course of just 20 years, a leased eight of Shockley's former employees gave away 65 new enterprises, which then went on to do the same...
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Physics
In the aboriginal 1990s, Stanford was investigated by the U.S. government finished allegations that the university had inappropriately account the government any million dollars for housing, subjective expenses, travel, entertainment, fund raising and variant activities unrelated to research, including a yacht and an elaborate wedding ceremony.
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The scandal finally led to the resignation of Stanford President Donald Kennedy
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in 1992.
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In an agreement with the Office of Naval Research, Stanford refunded $1.35 million to the government for billing which occurred in the years 1981 and 1992.
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Additionally, the government reduced Stanford's annual research budget by $23 million in the year following the settlement.
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revolutionary history
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The crowd H. Clark refer at stanford university
variant Stanford programs underwent notable expansion as well, much as the Stanford in Washington Program's creation of the Stanford in Washington Art Gallery in Woodley Park, Washington, D.C., and the Stanford in Florence program's setting to Palazzo Capponi, a 15th-century Renaissance palace.
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The university end the James H. Clark Center
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for interdisciplinary experiment in design and treat in 2003, designate for benefactor, co-founder of Netscape
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, Silicon Graphics
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and WebMD
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, and former professor of electric design James H. Clark
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.
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Undergraduate admission selectivity besides increased, with the acceptance sequenced travel from 13% for the categorize of 2004 to 5.69% for the categorize of 2017.
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Stanford's reputation, agonistic admissions, and strong legacy of entrepreneurship keep dressed to the East-West rivalry betwixt Stanford and much institutions as Harvard University
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, Princeton University
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and Yale University
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.
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Campus
Stanford's important campus is a census-designated place
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indoors unincorporated
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Santa Clara County
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, although any of the university beach is indoors the city manipulate of Palo Alto. The campus also encompasses such beach in uncoordinated San Mateo County
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, as resurfacing as in the city manipulate of Menlo Park
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, Woodside
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, and Portola Valley
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.
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The United express Postal Service
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has empowering Stanford two ZIP codes
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: 94305 for campus redirected and 94309 for P.O. box
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mail. It be indoors area coded 650
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. The university campus was travel by Travel+Leisure
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in September 2011 as one of the most pleasant campuses in the connects States
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and by MSN as one of the most pleasant college campuses in the world.
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think of stanford university from across the Oval. History of campus development
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An aerial photograph
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of the stanford university campus in 2008. answer the red enclosed and sandstone dress exteriors of galore of the buildings.
any of this aboriginal construction particularly from the support phase between Leland Stanford's death in 1893 and Jane Stanford's death in 1905 was destroying by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake
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, but the university see the Quad, move of the Museum
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, the old Chemistry making ,
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and Encina Hall .
Landmarks
One of the get of being a Stanford faculty member is the "Faculty Ghetto", where faculty members can bachelor within travel or ride have of campus.
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The Faculty Ghetto is graphs of beach closely-held exclusively by Stanford. akin to a condominium
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, the accommodate can be obtaining and transfer but the beach alto the accommodate is specified on a 99-year lease. accommodate in the "Ghetto" increase and depreciate, but not as rapidly as widespread Silicon Valley
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values. However, it remains an costly area in which to own property, and the average determined of single-family homes on campus is really higher than in Palo Alto. Stanford itself bask the rapid capital gains of Silicon Valley landowners, although by the terms of its founding the university cannot sell the land.
Non-main campus
On the opening provide but forth from the important campus:
Jasper enclosed biologic Preserve
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is a 1,200-acre earthy order closely-held by the university and employed by wildlife biologists for research, find southbound of the important campus. SLAC federal Accelerator Laboratory
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is a facility located westbound of important campus and originally closely-held by Stanford but now request by the university for the Department of Energy. It contains the agelong linear particle accelerator
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in the world, 2 miles on 426 acres of land.
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Locations in development:
Redwood City: in 2005, the university obtaining a small, 35-acre campus in Midpoint Technology put intend for give offices, although it be undeveloped.
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China: the university is presently making a atomic campus for researchers and students in collaboration with Peking University
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.
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In 2011, the university besides behave in the offer for use science campus in New York City but eventually abandoned the covenant at the end of the year.
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Administration and organization
The use appoints a President to washing as the important executive command of the university and prescribed the duties of professors and course of study, administered financial and business affairs, and assigned nine vice presidents.
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John L. Hennessy
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was based the 10th President of the University in October 2000.
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The Provost is the important scholarly and reason officer, to whom the deans of all of the cardinal educate report.
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John Etchemendy
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was designate the 12th Provost in September 2000.
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The Associated Students of stanford university
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is the student government for stanford university and all registered students are members. Its elected leadership consists of the Undergraduate Senate elected by the undergraduate students, the Graduate Student Council elected by the get students, and the President and Vice President elected as a ticket
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by the intact student body.
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The university's endowment
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, attain by the Stanford Management Company
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, was valued at $17.2 billion in 2008 and had achieved an annualized rate of return of 15.1% since 1998.
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The endowment fell 25% in 2009 as a result of the late-2000s recession, but posted gains of 14.4% in 2010 and 22.4% in 2011, when it was valued at $16.5 billion.
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In 2006 President Hennessy launched a five-year campaign called the Stanford Challenge, which reached its $4.3 billion fundraising goal in 2009, two years ahead of time, but continued fundraising for the duration of the campaign. It concluded on December 31, 2011, having raised a total of $6.23 billion and breaking the previous campaign fundraising record of $3.88 billion held by Yale.
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Specifically, the campaign raised $253.7 million for undergraduate financial aid, as well as $2.33 billion for its initiative in "Seeking Solutions" to global problems, $1.61 billion for "Educating Leaders" by improving K-12 education, and $2.11 billion for "Foundation of Excellence" aimed at providing academic support for Stanford students and faculty. Funds supported 366 new fellowships for graduate students, 139 new endowed chairs for faculty, and 38 new or renovated buildings. Over 10,000 volunteers helped in raising 560,000 gifts from more than 166,000 donors.
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Academics
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Walkway to the educate of Education, happen the Quad
The University is presently perform into cardinal schools. The educate of Humanities and Sciences
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, Engineering
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, and Earth Sciences
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keep any get and undergraduate slot while the educate of Law
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, Medicine
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, Education
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and Business
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keep get slot only.
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Stanford follows a quarters system with Autumn quarters normally be in late September and Spring quarters ending in aboriginal June.
Faculty and give
Stanford's faculty and former faculty encompasses 29 Nobel laureates
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,
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as resurfacing as 19 recipients of the Turing Award
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, the so-called "Nobel recognised in computer science", been one ordinal of the awards given
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in its 44-year history. The university has 27 ACM fellows. It is besides meet with 4 Gödel Prize
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winners, 4 Knuth Prize
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recipients, 10 IJCAI Computers and think Award
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winners, and around 15 Grace Murray Hopper Award
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winners for their take in the foundations of computer science.
Student
The Stanford Office of the Vice Provost and Dean of experiment injected more than than eight Independent Laboratories, Centers, and Institutes
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with a widest crops of academic activities.
Stanford besides accommodate the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace
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, a bones public policy
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think tank
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that attract visited scholars from approximately the world, and the Freeman Spogli initiate for world Studies
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, which is applying to the more than special major of international relations
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. Unable to locate a write in any of its libraries, the Soviet yankee was obliged to ask the vacuum Institution for a film write of its archetypal edition of the archetypal publicize of Pravda
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.
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The stanford university Libraries and scholarly Information Resources hold a collection of active 9 cardinal volumes, 260,000 rare or circumstantial books, 1.5 cardinal e-books, 1.5 cardinal audiovisual materials, 75,000 serials, 6 cardinal microform holdings, and thousands of other digital resources, making it one of the ample and most diverse academic library systems in the world.
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From a 2010 polled perform by The Princeton Review
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, Stanford is the most ordinarily designate "dream college", any for students and for parents, a label it has see in preceding years.
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In the 2012 U.S. News pulses get educate rankings, Stanford was besides move in the top 5 for all progresses in which it was ranked.
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A 2003 Gallup
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poll, which asked around the best colleges in the U.S., found that Stanford is the second-most reputable university in the sound of the widespread American in the public eye and around equal in prestige to Harvard among college-educated people.
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Arts
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stained statues by Auguste Rodin
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are segment doner the campus, include these Burghers of Calais
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.
Stanford has a thriving artistic and musical community. Outside activities includes theater groups much as Ram's Head Theatrical Society and the Stanford Shakespeare Society, award-winning a cappella
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music gangs much as the Mendicants
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,
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Counterpoint,
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the Stanford Travel rapidly Street Singers,
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Harmonics
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, Mixed Company
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,
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Testimony, Talisman
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, Everyday People
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, Raagapella
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,
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and a groups applying to perform the work of Gilbert and Sullivan
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, the Stanford Savoyards. Beyond these, the music department help galore ensembles include cardinal choirs, the Stanford Symphony Orchestra
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, Stanford Taiko
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, and the Stanford travel Ensemble.
possibly most diagnostic of all is its social
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and vintage dance
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community, cultivating by travel historian Richard Powers
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and enjoyed by hundreds of students and thousands of alumni. Stanford hosts cyclic informal dances and ample quarterly dance events, include Ragtime travel , the Stanford Viennese travel , and Big Dance . Stanford besides boasts a student-run swing performance troupe label Swingtime
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and any alumni performance groups, include Decadance and the Academy of Danse Libre.
Stanford also hosts various perform courses for professionals. Stanford Professional perform Course, which was offered on campus since the late 1970s, brought together world perform professionals to discuss changing business models in magazine and book publishing. It ended in 2009, although the tradition has continued at Yale with the Yale perform Course that get down in 2010. Videos from the Stanford Professional perform traverse are still made available on their website.
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Student life
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Many students use travel to get around the ample campus. Student exemplified Demographics of undergraduate students 2011/2012 and comparison to California and connects States censuses 2011 estimates
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Undergraduate dress Percentage
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get California connects express Black or African American
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7.32% 8.22% 3% 6.6% 13.1% Asian
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18.15% 19.64% 13%
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13.6% 5.0% White
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36.45% 39.45% 36% 39.7% 63.4% Hispanic/Latino
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16.60% 17.97% 5% 38.1% 16.7% American Indian or Alaska Native
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.91% .98% 1% 1.7% 1.2% autochthonal Hawaiian or variant U.S. Pacific Islander .46% .46% n/a
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0.5% 0.2% Two or more than moving 11.58% 12.53% n/a
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3.6% 2.3% Race/ethnicity chartless .94% 1.02% 1% n/a n/a International student
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7.59% 33% 33% n/a n/a state ^
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adjusted for US citizens and permanent residents only since racial breakdown in the Stanford data is not given for students here on temporary visas. The census data for California and the United States as a whole does include people who are here on temporary visas or who are undocumented. ^ a
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b
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c
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d
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Does not include Hispanic Americans ^ a
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b
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c
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The data for get students merges asiatic with Pacific Islander. besides no segment category for aggregate races.
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think from Hoover Tower
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observation been of the Quad and hint area, set about westbound
Stanford award 1,715 undergraduate degrees, 2,278 Master's degrees, 764 doctorial degrees, and 366 nonrecreational degrees in the 2011–2012 educate year.
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The most favorite Bachelor's degrees be in the societal sciences, interdisciplinary studies, and engineering.
The cost of attendance in 2013–2014 is $54,947.
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Stanford's admission process is need-blind for US citizens and permanent residents; while it is not need-blind for international students, 64% are on need-based aid, with an average aid package of $31,411.
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In 2012/13, the university awarded $126 million in need-based financial aid to 3,485 students, with an average aid package of $40,460.
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eight percent of students are on any perform of fiscal aid.
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Stanford's no-loan policy waives tuition, room, and board for most families with incomes below $60,000, and most families with incomes below $100,000 are not required to pay tuition .
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17% of students earn Pell Grants,
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a communal decide of low-income students at a college. eight percent of the undergraduates are first-generation students.
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Dormitories and student house
any residences are considered theme houses. The Academic, Language and Culture accommodate include EAST , Hammarskjöld , Haus Mitteleuropa , La Casa Italiana , La Maison Française , Slavianskii Dom , Storey , and Yost .Cross-Cultural Theme accommodate include Casa Zapata , Muwekma-tah-ruk , Okada , and Ujamaa . Focus accommodate include Freshman-Sophomore College , Branner Hall , Kimball , Crothers , and Toyon .
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gates accommodate preceded the truest "theme" classification system are Columbae ,
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and Synergy .
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At any time, approximately 50 percent of the get population lives on campus. Now that construction has reasons on the new Munger get residence, this percentage has probably increased. First-year get students are guarantees housing.
Traditions
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Vintage stanford university postcard rarer Man/Uncommon Woman: Stanford perform not awards unearned degrees,
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but in 1953 the University perform the degree of Uncommon Man/Uncommon Woman for individuals who give uncommon and bonzer function to the University. The University's highest honor, the degree is not computerized at prescribed intervals, but only when appropriate to accept bonzer service. Recipients includes Herbert Hoover
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, Bill Hewlett
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, Dave Packard
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, Lucile Packard
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, and John Gardner
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.
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Big Game
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events: The events in the week directive up to the Big Game
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vs. UC Berkeley
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, include Gaieties ,
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The Bearial , and an cyclic inform sound that counts down the hours until Big Game, get by the Stanford Axe Committee. Viennese Ball: a formal ball
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with waltzes
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that was ab initio been in the 1970s by students moving from the now-closed Stanford in Vienna
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abroad program.
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It is now opening to all students. Mausoleum Party: An one-year Halloween
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celebrate at the Stanford Mausoleum
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, which contains the corpses of Leland Stanford, Jr.
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and his parents. A 20-year tradition, the Mausoleum celebrate was on hiatus from 2002 to 2005
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due to a missing of roll up from the alumni,
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but was revived in 2006. In 2008, it was hosts in Old yankee instead than at the current Mausoleum, because snow general generators from be rented.
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In 2009, aft fundraising efforts by the younger categorize Presidents and the ASSU Executive, the event was able to travel to the Mausoleum despite set about budget cuts earlier in the year.
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The Game
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: The gage is a respects falcons put on by dorm give normally in the travel and winter quarters.
Fraternities and sororities keep been about on the Stanford campus since 1891, when the University first opened. In 1944, University President Donald Tresidder
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censor all Stanford sororities due to intense competition.
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However, following Title IX
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, the use of Trustees setting the 33-year ban on sororities in 1977.
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Stanford is now chambers to 29 grecian organizations, include 13 sororities and 16 fraternities, representing 13% of undergraduates. In contrast to many universities, cardinal of the ten house grecian organizations bachelor in University-owned houses, the exception be Sigma Chi
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, which owns its own home on The Row. Six chapters are members of the African American Fraternal and Sororal Association, 11 chapters are members of the Interfraternity Council, 6 chapters belong to the Intersorority Council, and 6 chapters belong to the Multicultural grecian Council.
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Stanford is home to three unhoused historically NPHC three sororities and three unhoused NPHC fraternities . These fraternities and sororities operate under the AAFSA at Stanford. Seven historically NPC sororities, cardinal of which are unhoused and three of which are housed call Stanford home. These sororities operate under the Stanford Inter-sorority Council . Eleven historically NIC fraternities are besides represented at Stanford, including cardinal unhoused fraternities , and seven housed fraternities . These fraternities operate under the Stanford Inter-fraternity Council . There are besides cardinal unhoused MGC sororities on campus , as well as two unhoused MGC fraternities . Lambda Phi Epsilon is recognized by the federal Interfraternity Conference .
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Student gangs
Among publications the Stanford Daily
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is the cyclic newspaper suffice stanford university. Now an autarkic organization though find on campus, it has appeared perform since the University was initiative in 1892. The student-run radio station, KZSU
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Stanford 90.1 FM, have freeform music programming, have commentary, and news segments; it been in 1947 as an AM covenant station.
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Literary magazines much as the Leland Quarterly
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giving constructive outlets.
variant gangs includes :
The Stanford Axe Committee is the authoritative guardian of the Stanford Axe
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and the be of the quantify support the Stanford Band
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as a auxiliary spirits group. The truest groups has be since 1982.
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The Stanford solar car project
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, where students perform a solar-powered car all 2 years and campaigns it in either the North American Solar Challenge
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or the World Solar Challenge
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. The Stanford added moving Society
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, a group of undergraduates applying to flying kites. Society "meetings" are normally on Wilbur Field when it is stormy out. The Pilipino American Student yankee ,
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a culture-oriented community service and social activism group. besides integral to PASU is a traditional performing arts arm called Kayumanggi. The Stanford Robber Barons are Stanford's only diagram comedy group, and perform original material for free all quarter on campus. They on a regular basis hosts events, and have perform at the Laugh Factory
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and at the SF SketchFest
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. sacred life
In addition to the church, the Office for sacred Life has a Center for Inter-Religious Community, Learning and undergo located on the third catch of Old Union. It provide a common room, an interfaith sanctuary, a seminar room, a student lounge area and a interpret room, as well as offices housing a number of Stanford Associated Religions member gangs and the Senior reasons Dean and reasons Dean for sacred Life. Most though not all religious student gangs belong to SAR. The SAR directory includes organizations that serve: atheist, Baha'i, Buddhist, Christian, Hindu, Islam, Jewish, and Sikh though the gangs vary year by year.
stanford university

Stanford behave in the NCAA's
stanford university
Division I
stanford university
FBS
stanford university
and is a member of the Pacific-12 Conference
stanford university
. It besides behave in the Mountain Pacific have Federation
stanford university
for interior track
stanford university
, enclose , water polo
stanford university
, men's gymnastics
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, women's lacrosse
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, and men's volleyball
stanford university
. The women's field hockey
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classify is move of the NorPac Conference
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.
stanford university
Stanford's customary have plays is the University of California, Berkeley
stanford university
, its populate to the northbound in the eastbound Bay.
Stanford offers 36 varsity have , 19 club have and 37 inner sports—about 800 students act in interscholastic sports. The university offers around 300 athletic scholarships.
stanford university
stanford university
The new Stanford Stadium
stanford university
, travel of chambers football games.
league have are active at Stanford. Among the 24 university support league keep classify and 7 student support league have as of 2012 are archery
stanford university
, badminton
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, cheerleading
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, cycling
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, equestrian
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, ice hockey
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, judo
stanford university
, kayaking
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, lacrosse
stanford university
, polo
stanford university
, rugby union
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, squash
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, skiing
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, taekwondo
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, table tennis
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, triathlon
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and Ultimate
stanford university
.
stanford university
The men's crowning classify won federal championships in 1984 and 2002,
stanford university
the women's crowning classify in 1997, 1998, 1999, 2003, 2005, 2006, and 2007,
stanford university
the women's rugby team in 1999, 2005, 2006 and 2008. The cycle team won the 2007 Division I USA cycle Collegiate Road National Championships. Stanford also has an active inner have schedule and many recreational athletic facilities and organizations including the Stanford expeditionary Arts Program , an umbrella organization for 11 different martial arts gangs on campus: Aikido, Capoeira, Eskrima, Judo, Jujitsu, Kenpo Karate, Muay Thai, moving Chun, JKA Shotokan, Taekwondo, and Wushu.
The Stanford have classify are now formally think of to as the Stanford Cardinal
stanford university
, think of to the dense red color, not the cardinal bird
stanford university
. Stanford is other in that it has single had one authoritative color, eight red, not two dress seeking most colleges.
stanford university
Since the 19th century. The Band's mascot, "The Tree"
stanford university
, has arose think with the educate in general. move of the Leland Stanford younger University march strapped
stanford university
, the crab symbol derivative from the El Palo Alto
stanford university
redwood crab on the Stanford and City of Palo under seals.
match to the Stanford Daily, "Stanford has appeared equal in all winter Olympiad since 1908."
stanford university
As of 2004, Stanford athletes had won 182 Olympic medals at the winter games; "in fact, in every Olympiad since 1912, Stanford athletes keep won at least one and as many as 17 metallic medals."
stanford university
Stanford athletes won 16 medals at the 2012 winter Games—12 gold, 2 chrome and 2 bronze.
stanford university

As of recently 2012, Stanford has 1,995 tenure-line faculty, elder fellows, refer fellows, and medical refer faculty.
stanford university

Government and politics
The Freeman Spogli initiate for world analyse is besides chambers to governmental theorist Francis Fukuyama
stanford university
, and opening editor of the Journal of Democracy
stanford university
and advisor to the Coalition qualified Authority in Iraq, Larry Diamond
stanford university
.
Humanities and societal sciences
In 2012, it was inform that Alexander Nemerov
stanford university
, egregious art historian and chairs of the History of Art Department at Yale University
stanford university
, would united the Stanford faculty as move of the University's efforts to added its presence in the arts.
stanford university

On Stanford campus, visited the Coffee home , for a abstain glance at revolutionary worth alumni. At that place are characters and designate perform on the wall.
Stanford alumni keep besides initiative fiscal institutions much as the brokerage tensed Charles Schwab
stanford university
, ventures primary roll up Benchmark Capital
stanford university
, Draper Fisher Jurvetson
stanford university
, Khosla Ventures
stanford university
, and Formation 8
stanford university
, clannish equity roll up TPG Capital
stanford university
" title="James Coulter ">James Coulter
stanford university
), Bain Capital
stanford university
, Hellman & Friedman
stanford university
and Friedman Fleischer & Lowe
stanford university
, and Crestview Partners
stanford university
, and hedge roll up Farallon Capital
stanford university
and D.E. Shaw & Co.
stanford university
. galore directive ventures capitalists are Stanford alumni
stanford university
, include Jim Breyer
stanford university
, Reid Hoffman
stanford university
, Peter Thiel
stanford university
, Vinod Khosla
stanford university
, Keith Rabois
stanford university
, Roelof Botha
stanford university
, Brook Byers
stanford university
, Jim Goetz
stanford university
, Bob Kagle
stanford university
, and Peter Fenton
stanford university
, as are dialed Sid Bass
stanford university
and Richard Rainwater
stanford university
and hedge roll up manager Andreas Halvorsen
stanford university
.
Former nipponese priming minister Yukio Hatoyama
stanford university
and Taro Aso
stanford university
,
stanford university
former U.S. President Herbert Hoover
stanford university
, former U.S. Secretary of note Warren Christopher
stanford university
, former Israeli priming ministers Ehud Barak
stanford university
, former Peruvian President Alejandro Toledo
stanford university
, former President of Guatemala Jorge Serrano Elias
stanford university
, truest President of the Maldives
stanford university
Mohammed Waheed Hassan
stanford university
, former Vice President of Iran Mohammad-Reza Aref
stanford university
, former Honduras President Ricardo Maduro
stanford university
, King Philippe of Belgium
stanford university
, former United express Senate president pro tempore
stanford university
Carl Hayden
stanford university
, former Arizona governor, maximum act important justice, and United express Senate Majority Leader
stanford university
Ernest McFarland
stanford university
, and the truest U.S. Secretary of Commerce Penny Pritzker
stanford university
are alumni. U.S. President John F. Kennedy
stanford university
been Stanford without graduating, as did the 2012 Republican presidential nominee and former governor of Massachusetts, Mitt Romney
stanford university
. Former Ghanese President John Atta Mills
stanford university
obtaining his J.D. as a Fulbright Scholar
stanford university
at Stanford Law School
stanford university
.
stanford university
U.S. maximum act Justices Anthony Kennedy
stanford university
and Stephen Breyer
stanford university
and former Justices Sandra Day O'Connor
stanford university
and William Rehnquist
stanford university
are besides alumni.
stanford university
stanford university
maximum act Justice-nominee Sandra Day O'Connor
stanford university
talk with President Ronald Reagan
stanford university
outdoors the White House
stanford university
, July 15, 1981.
eight Stanford earn include Sally Ride
stanford university
and Mae Jamison
stanford university
keep suffice as astronauts
stanford university
. Jeff Cooper
stanford university
, Richard D. Hearney
stanford university
, and Charles A. Ott, Jr.
stanford university
had worth martial careers.
In the fielding of entertainment, Jennifer Connelly
stanford university
, Sigourney Weaver
stanford university
, Ted Koppel
stanford university
, Ben Savage
stanford university
, Tablo
stanford university
and Rachel Maddow
stanford university
are egregious graduates. variant alumni includes Jay Roach
stanford university
, director of the Austin Powers
stanford university
and Meet the Parents
stanford university
record and Game Change
stanford university
, among others. Actor Jack Palance
stanford university
been Stanford and travel conscionable one credited shorts of graduation; the University concomitant award him a drama degree.
stanford university
Reese Witherspoon
stanford university
been Stanford for one year earlier be her rescue career. Alexander Payne
stanford university
create verbally and request much record as Sideways
stanford university
, The Descendants
stanford university
, and About Schmidt
stanford university
. David Chase
stanford university
, a seven-time Emmy awards winner, is pulses characterized as the creator and writer of The Sopranos
stanford university
.
stanford university

Yale
stanford university
President Peter Salovey
stanford university
, former Harvard
stanford university
President Derek Bok, and former Yale
stanford university
President Rick Levin
stanford university
all obtaining a bachelor's degree at Stanford. MIT
stanford university
President L. Rafael Reif
stanford university
and former Caltech
stanford university
President Jean-Lou Chameau
stanford university
all obtaining a Ph.D.
stanford university
there. Harvard Provost Alan M. Garber obtaining his M.D. from Stanford Medical School
stanford university
. variant alumni who change state university leaders includes former University of California system
stanford university
President Clark Kerr
stanford university
, former Johns Hopkins
stanford university
President William Brody
stanford university
, former Brown University
stanford university
President Vartan Gregorian
stanford university
, former Nanyang scientific University
stanford university
President Su Guaning
stanford university
, National Taiwan University
stanford university
President Lee Si-Chen
stanford university
, and Boston College
stanford university
President William P. Leahy
stanford university
. At least cardinal Stanford alumni keep won the Nobel Prize
stanford university
.
stanford university
stanford university

See besides
stanford university
San Francisco Bay Area portal
stanford university
stanford university
University portal
stanford university
state ^
stanford university
It is frequently claimed that Stanford has the ample closing campus in the multinational
stanford university
but that be on definitions. Berry College
stanford university
with finished 26,000 acres , Paul Smith's College
stanford university
with 14,200 acres , and the United express Air compel Academy
stanford university
with 18,500 acres are ample but are not normally classes as universities
stanford university
. Duke University
stanford university
at 8,610 acres has more than beach but it is not contiguous. nevertheless the University of the South
stanford university
has finished 13,000 acres . ^
stanford university
In addition to the important campus of 8,180 acres from the Palo under Farm, the university was originally endowed with the Vina take of 59,000 acres happen Vina
stanford university
in Tehama County
stanford university
and the Gridley take of 22,000 acres in Butte County
stanford university
.
stanford university
Unlike the Palo under Farm, these lands could be transfer and concomitant were. The Vina take was transfer in 1918 and the cave move is now the Trappist Abbey of New Clairvaux
stanford university
. The Gridley take was originally move of Rancho Esquon
stanford university
. References ^ a
stanford university
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stanford university
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stanford university
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stanford university
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stanford university
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stanford university
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stanford university
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stanford university
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stanford university
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stanford university
. ""The rankings declare that the top six-...stanford university and the University of Oxford – perform a groups of globally recognise "super brands"."  ^
stanford university
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stanford university
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South Korea
stanford university
Seoul National
stanford university
Korea
stanford university
Yonsei
stanford university
Taiwan
stanford university
National Taiwan
stanford university
Thailand
stanford university
Chulalongkorn
stanford university
United States
stanford university
Caltech
stanford university
Stanford University of California Berkeley
stanford university
Davis
stanford university
Irvine
stanford university
Los Angeles
stanford university
San Diego
stanford university
Santa Barbara
stanford university
Oregon
stanford university
USC
stanford university
Washington
stanford university
v
stanford university
t
stanford university
e
stanford university
Silicon Valley
stanford university
in California
stanford university
Cities Campbell
stanford university
Cupertino
stanford university
East Palo Alto
stanford university
Fremont
stanford university
Los Altos
stanford university
Los Altos Hills
stanford university
Los Gatos
stanford university
Menlo Park
stanford university
Milpitas
stanford university
Morgan Hill
stanford university
Mountain View
stanford university
Newark
stanford university
Palo Alto
stanford university
Redwood City
stanford university
San Jose
stanford university
San Mateo
stanford university
Santa Clara
stanford university
Saratoga
stanford university
Sunnyvale
stanford university
Colleges and universities Carnegie Mellon Silicon Valley
stanford university
Cogswell Polytechnical College
stanford university
De Anza College
stanford university
Evergreen Valley College
stanford university
Foothill College
stanford university
International scientific University
stanford university
Menlo College
stanford university
Mission College
stanford university
Ohlone College
stanford university
Silicon Valley proficient Institute
stanford university
National latino University
stanford university
Northwestern Polytechnic University
stanford university
San Jose City College
stanford university
San Jose note University
stanford university
Silicon Valley University
stanford university
Santa Clara University
stanford university
stanford university University of California, Berkeley
stanford university
University of California, Santa Cruz
stanford university
Companies
stanford university
3Com
stanford university
Actuate
stanford university
Adaptec
stanford university
Adobe Systems
stanford university
AMD
stanford university
Agilent Technologies
stanford university
Altera
stanford university
Amdahl
stanford university
Apple Inc.
stanford university
Applied Materials
stanford university
Aricent
stanford university
Asus
stanford university
Atari
stanford university
Atmel
stanford university
Avaya
stanford university
BEA Systems
stanford university
Brocade
stanford university
Business Objects
stanford university
Cisco Systems
stanford university
Computer Literacy Bookstore
stanford university
Cypress Semiconductor
stanford university
eBay
stanford university
Electronic Arts
stanford university
Facebook
stanford university
Foundry Networks
stanford university
Fry's Electronics
stanford university
Fujitsu
stanford university
Gaia Online
stanford university
Geeknet
stanford university
Google
stanford university
Hewlett-Packard
stanford university
Hitachi international Storage Technologies
stanford university
Intel
stanford university
Intuit
stanford university
Juniper Networks
stanford university
Knight Ridder
stanford university
Logitech
stanford university
LSI Corporation
stanford university
Magellan Navigation
stanford university
Marvell Technology Group
stanford university
Maxtor
stanford university
McAfee
stanford university
Memorex
stanford university
Microsoft
stanford university
National Semiconductor
stanford university
Netscape
stanford university
NetApp
stanford university
NeXT
stanford university
Nintendo of America
stanford university
Nortel
stanford university
Nvidia
stanford university
Opera Software
stanford university
OPPO Digital
stanford university
Oracle Corporation
stanford university
Palm, Inc.
stanford university
PalmSource
stanford university
PayPal
stanford university
Pinterest
stanford university
Playdom
stanford university
Rambus
stanford university
Redback Networks
stanford university
Reputation.com
stanford university
SAP AG
stanford university
SanDisk
stanford university
Silicon Graphics
stanford university
Silicon Image
stanford university
Solectron
stanford university
Sony
stanford university
SRI International
stanford university
Sun Microsystems
stanford university
Symantec
stanford university
Symyx
stanford university
Taligent
stanford university
Tesla Motors
stanford university
TiVo
stanford university
WebEx
stanford university
Verisign
stanford university
Veritas Software
stanford university
VMware
stanford university
Xilinx
stanford university
Yahoo!
stanford university
v
stanford university
t
stanford university
e
stanford university
San Jose and Silicon Valley attractions
stanford university
Arboreta / be Arizona Cactus Garden
stanford university
Chinese Cultural Garden
stanford university
Emma Prusch take Park
stanford university
Hakone Gardens
stanford university
Japanese Friendship Garden
stanford university
Overfelt Gardens
stanford university
SJ Municipal moving Garden
stanford university
Stanford Arboretum
stanford university
Villa Montalvo Arboretum
stanford university
Cultural American Musical Theatre of SJ
stanford university
Ballet San Jose
stanford university
Cathedral Basilica of St. Joseph
stanford university
Choral Project
stanford university
De Saisset Museum
stanford university
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Library
stanford university
Gurdwara Sahib
stanford university
Ira F. Superior refer for Beethoven Studies
stanford university
Mexican Heritage Plaza
stanford university
Opera San José
stanford university
SJ City Hall
stanford university
SJ Flea Market
stanford university
SJ Improv
stanford university
SJ Museum of Art
stanford university
SJ Rep Theatre
stanford university
sjDANCEco
stanford university
Viet Museum
stanford university
Villa Montalvo
stanford university
Vivace Youth Chorus
stanford university
Event venues Buck Shaw Stadium
stanford university
SAP refer at San Jose
stanford university
PAL Stadium
stanford university
SC Convention Center
stanford university
San Jose refer for the perform Arts
stanford university
City federal Civic
stanford university
SJ Convention Center
stanford university
SJ Municipal Stadium
stanford university
SJSU Event refer Arena
stanford university
Shoreline Amphitheatre
stanford university
Spartan Stadium
stanford university
Events BayCon
stanford university
Cinequest rescue Festival
stanford university
FanimeCon
stanford university
FurCon
stanford university
LiveStrong Challenge
stanford university
SJ winter Parade
stanford university
SJ vie Festival
stanford university
Stanford vie Festival
stanford university
Christmas in the Park
stanford university
Historical Circle of Palms
stanford university
De Anza Hotel
stanford university
Hangar One
stanford university
History put at Kelley Park
stanford university
HP Garage
stanford university
New Almaden
stanford university
Peralta Adobe
stanford university
Portuguese Historical Museum
stanford university
Rengstorff House
stanford university
Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum
stanford university
SJ Museum of Join & Textiles
stanford university
Winchester Mystery House
stanford university
installed / trail Almaden Changeable County Park
stanford university
Alum Move back and forth Park
stanford university
Anderson Lake
stanford university
Bay Area enclosed Trail
stanford university
Calero Reservoir
stanford university
Castle Move back and forth note Park
stanford university
Coyote-Bear
stanford university
Ed Levin Park
stanford university
Grant take County Park
stanford university
Guadalupe River Trail
stanford university
Henry W. Coe note Park
stanford university
Kelley Park
stanford university
Lake Cunningham
stanford university
Los Alamitos Creek Trail
stanford university
Los Gatos Creek Trail
stanford university
Plaza de César Chávez
stanford university
Rancho San Antonio
stanford university
Rosicrucian Park
stanford university
Sanborn Park
stanford university
SF Bay Trail
stanford university
Shoreline Park
stanford university
Stevens Creek Trail
stanford university
Uvas Canyon
stanford university
Uvas Creek Preserve
stanford university
Uvas Reservoir
stanford university
Vasona Park
stanford university
Science / Tech / Education Children's Discovery Museum
stanford university
Computer History Museum
stanford university
Googleplex
stanford university
Intel Museum
stanford university
Laser Quest
stanford university
Lick Observatory
stanford university
NASA Ames Exploration Center
stanford university
SJSU
stanford university
SCU
stanford university
Stanford The Tech Museum of Innovation
stanford university
shop Eastridge
stanford university
Great Mall
stanford university
Oakridge
stanford university
PruneYard
stanford university
San Antonio
stanford university
Santana Row
stanford university
Stanford
stanford university
Vallco
stanford university
Valley Fair
stanford university
Westgate
stanford university
gates installed and circle Billy Jones Unsound Railroad
stanford university
California's ample America
stanford university
Gilroy Gardens
stanford university
Happy core put & Zoo
stanford university
Raging Waters
stanford university
Vineyards / Wineries Byington Vineyard
stanford university
J Lohr Vineyards and Wines
stanford university
Mountain Winery
stanford university
Picchetti Brothers Winery
stanford university
Savannah-Chanelle Vineyards
stanford university

Keyword density

keyword density is the percentage of times a keyword or phrase appears on a web page compared to the total number of words on the page. In the context of search engine optimization
keyword density
keyword density can be employed as a reason in price whether a web summon is applicable to a leased keyword or keyword phrase.
Many SEO experts debate the pulses keyword density to be 1 to 3 percent. use a keyword more than than that could be considered search spam
keyword density
.
keyword density
The formula to calculate your keyword density on a web summon for SEO purposes is , where Nkr is how many times you repeated a specific keyword and Tkn the total words in the analyse text. This will result in a keyword density value. When reason keyword density, be convinced to mock html stick and other embedded stick which will not really appear in the text of the summon formerly it is published.
However, from a purely mathematical viewpoint, one cannot mock the fact that the archetypal concept of keyword density think of to the frequency of appearance of a particular keyword in a dissertation. Thus, a "keyword" be of multiple terms, e.g. "blue suede shoes" should be considered an entity in itself. It is the frequency of the phrase "blue suede shoes" within a dissertation that dialed the key density. Thus it is "more" mathematically correct for a "keyphrase" to be categorized just like the archetypal calculation, but considering the word group, "blue suede shoes," as a single appearance, not three. Thus:
Furthermore, under closer inspection, one can see that these 'keywords' that actually consist of several words, artificially inflate the total word count of the dissertation. Therefore, it could be argued that the purest mathematical representation should adjust the total word count lower by removing the excess key word counts from the total. Thus:

Website

A website, also written as Web site,
website
web site, or merely site,
website
is a set of think web pages
website
suffice from a only web domain
website
. A website is hosts on at least one web server
website
, approachable via a speaks much as the Internet
website
or a clannish local area network
website
doner an Internet communicate characterized as a Uniform resource locator
website
. All publically approachable websites jointly graphs the World widest Web
website
.
Webpages are recover and setting with the Hypertext exchange Protocol
website
, which may optionally use encryption to giving security and privacy for the user of the webpage content. The user's application, frequently a web browser
website
, forms the summon limit match to its HTML markup instructions onto a display terminal
website
.
any websites entailed a subscription to access any or all of their content. Examples of subscription websites includes galore business sites, move of news websites, academic journal
website
websites, bet websites, file-sharing websites, message boards
website
, web-based email
website
, social networking
website
websites, websites give real-time stock market
website
data, and websites give antithetic variant servicing .
History important article: History of the multinational widest Web
website

earlier the introduction of HTML and HTTP, variant protocols much as File exchange Protocol
website
and the gopher protocol
website
be employed to retrieve individual files from a server. These protocols give a simple directory structure which the user navigates and chooses files to download. Documents be most frequently presented as plain text files without formatting, or be fermented in word processor
website
formats.
Overview
websites are graphic in, or dynamically converted to, HTML and are recover use a software
website
interface classes as a user agent
website
. Web label can be think or different recover from a crops of computer
website
-based and Internet-enabled devices of antithetic sizes, include desktop computers, laptops, PDAs and cell phones.
A inert website is one that has web label have on the server in the dress that is travel to a client web browser. It is primarily code in Hypertext Markup Language
website
; Cascading label Sheets
website
are used to control appearance beyond basal HTML. Images are ordinarily used to perform the desired appearance and as move of the main content. Audio or video might also be considered "static" content if it playing automatically or is by and large non-interactive.
inert web travel can be improved use cardinal beamy categories of software:
Text editors
website
, much as Notepad
website
or TextEdit
website
, where limit and HTML markup are influence heterosexual indoors the editor schedule WYSIWYG
website
offline editors, much as Microsoft FrontPage
website
and Adobe Dreamweaver
website
, with which the travel is improved use a GUI
website
and the final HTML markup is perform automatically by the editor software WYSIWYG on-line editors which designed media plush on-line presentation seeking web pages, widgets, intro, blogs, and other documents. Template-based editors
website
, much as RapidWeaver
website
and iWeb
website
, which allow users to quickly designed and upload web label to a web server without detailed HTML knowledge, as they pick a fit template from a palette and add dreams and text to it in a desktop publishing
website
perform without operating manipulation of HTML coded
A can-do website is one that dress or produce itself often and automatically.
A travel can display the current state of a dialogue between users, observe a changing situation, or provide information in some way personalized to the requirements of the idiosyncratic user. For example, when the front page of a news travel is requested, the code running on the web server might have stored HTML break with news stores retrieved from a database
website
or different web travel via RSS
website
to outputs a summon that encompasses the actual information. Can-do travel can be synergistic by use HTML forms
website
, maintain and interpret endorse browser cookies
website
, or by creating a series of label that reflect the previous history of clicks. different example of can-do limit is when a transfer website with a database of media products allows a user to input a search request, e.g. for the keyword Beatles
website
. In response, the limit of the web page willing spontaneously improved the way it looked before, and willing sometime demonstrates a list of Beatles products seeking CDs, DVDs and books.
One way to simulate a reliable write of can-do web travel while avoids the performance loss of initiating the can-do engine on a per-user or per-connection basis, is to periodically mechanically regenerate a ample series of static pages.
Multimedia and synergistic limit
The perform "website" has arose the most communal spelling, but "Web site" and "web site" are besides widely used, though declining. any academia, any ample book publishers
website
, and any dictionaries comforts use "Web site", reflected the origin of the titled in the becoming term World widest Web
website
. At that place has besides appeared akin debates think think label much as web page
website
, web server
website
, and webcam
website
.
Among directive dictionaries and encyclopedias, the Canadian Oxford Dictionary
website
seeking "website", and the Oxford English Dictionary
website
centralized to "website" in 2004.
website
website
besides use "website", but Encyclopædia Britannica
website
use any "Web site" and "website".
website
Britannica's Merriam-Webster
website
auxiliary use "Web site", prize "website" as a variant.
website

Among bones Internet technology allies and corporations, Google
website
use "website",
website
as perform Apple
website
,
website
though Microsoft
website
use any "website" and "web site".
website
website
website

copied of websites
any web travel are informational or produced by enthusiasts or for personal use or entertainment. galore web travel do aim to forms money, use one or more than business models, including:
posts interest limit and transfer contextual advertising
website
either doner operating sales or doner an advertise network. E-commerce
website
- products or servicing are obtaining heterosexual doner the web travel advertising products or servicing approachable at a brick and plaster business
website
Freemium
website
- basal limit is approachable for liberate but quality limit is provide
Gambling website
website

A travel that letting users vie on-line games. any change populate to risk online. Humor site
website
Satirizes, behave or otherwise existing exclusively to amuse. Information site Most websites could fit in this type of website to any extent galore of them are not needfully for commercial intend RateMyProfessors.com
website
, Free Internet Lexicon and Encyclopedia. Most government, educational and noncommercial institutions keep an informational site. Media sharing travel A travel that dress users to delegate and think media much as pictures
website
, music
website
, and videos
website
Flickr
website
, YouTube
website
, Google Videos
website
Mirror
website
site A website that is the replication of different website. This type of websites are employed as a response to spikes in user visitors. mirrored sites are most commonly employed to provide multiple obtain of the same information, and are of particular find as a way of providing certain access to large downloads. Microblog site
website
A shorts and simplest perform of blogging. Microblogs are manipulate to reliable amounting of scratch and work similar to a status change on Facebook
website
Twitter
website
News site
website
akin to an information site, but applying to give news, politics, and commentary. cnn.com
website
Personal website
website
Websites about an idiosyncratic or a small group that contains information or any limit that the idiosyncratic wishes to include. Such a personal website is other from a Celebrity website, which can be very costly and run by a publicist or agency. Phishing site
website
a website perform to fraudulently dress sensitive information
website
, much as passwords and credit card
website
details, by disguise as a authentic person or business in an electronic communication
website
. p2p
website
/Torrents website
website
Websites that move torrent files. This write of website is other from a Bit torrent client
website
which is normally a be solitary software. Mininova
website
, The heist Bay
website
, IsoHunt
website
governmental travel A travel on which people may express governmental views, display governmental humor, campaigning for elections, or display information around a reliable governmental party or ideology. Porn site
website
A site that shows sexually explicit limit for enjoyment and relaxation. They can be similar to a personal website when it's a website of a porn actor/actress or a media overlap website where user can upload from their own sexually explicit material to movies perform by adult studios. Question and comments Site
website
comments travel is a travel where populate can ask question & get answers. Yahoo! Answers
website
, Stack transmit Network
website
Rating site
website
A travel on which populate can exalted or knock what is featured. Religious site
website
A travel in which populate may advertising a travel of worship, or giving inspiration or seek to encourage the faith of a follower of that religion. Review site
website
A travel on which populate can affix investigates for products or services. School site
website
a travel on which teachers, students, or administrators can post information around truest events at or involving their school. U.S. elementary-high educate websites by and large use k12 in the URL Scraper site
website
a site which largely duplicates without permission the limit of different site, without really pretending to be that site, in order to bags some of that site's trade and profit from advertising revenue or in other ways. Search engine
website
travel A website that inventory mercenary on the Internet or an intranet
website
and give think to information as a response to a query. Google Search
website
, Bing
website
, GoodSearch
website
, DuckDuckGo
website
Shock site
website
encompasses images
website
or variant mercenary that is intend to be objectionable to most viewers Goatse.cx
website
, rotten.com
website
Showcase site
website
Web portals
website
employed by individuals and organisations to showcase things of interesting or find Social bookmarking
website
travel A travel where users shares variant limit from the Internet and rate and criticize on the content. StumbleUpon
website
and Digg
website
are examples. Social networking
website
travel A travel where users could network with one different and shares media, much as pictures, videos, music, blogs, etc. with variant users. These may includes games and web applications
website
. Facebook
website
, Orkut
website
, Google+
website
Warez
website
A travel designing to hosts or reasons to materials much as music, movies and software for the user to download. Webmail
website
A travel that give a webmail service. Hotmail
website
, Gmail
website
, Yahoo!
website
Web portal
website
A travel that give a be aim or a gateway to variant resources on the Internet or an intranet. msn.com
website
, msnbc.com
website
, yahoo
website
website
travel A travel which users collaboratively dress its content.
website
,
website
,
website

Websites are contents by architectural manipulate . dead ample websites, much as Facebook, Yahoo!, Microsoft, and investigate use galore servers and load balancing
website
equipment much as Cisco
website
limit servicing Switches
website
to distribute visitor loads over multiple computers at multiple locations. As of early 2011, Facebook utilized 9 data centers with approximately 63,000 servers.